Policy Report: The Year in Elections, mid-2016

Download the mid-2016 report

Download the mid-2016 report


The Year in Elections, mid-2016

Pippa Norris, Ferran Martinez i Coma, Alessandro Nai and Max Groemping

September 2016


There is widespread concern that elections around the globe commonly suffer from major flaws, whether from violence and conflict, corruption and clientelism, or vote rigging and fraud.

In longstanding democracies, as well, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, there are worries about the risks of potential suppression of voters’ rights, impersonation at the polls, and technological vulnerability to hacking.

Evidence and methods

What is the state of the world’s elections this year? Updating our previous work, based on the release of the Perceptions of Electoral Integrity dataset (PEI 4.5) in August 2016, this report compares 153 countries holding 213 elections from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2016.

This cumulative coverage is comprehensive, representing 87% of all independent nation states holding national parliamentary and presidential elections around the world, excluding micro-states (with a population below 100,000).

The study provides independent assessments utilizing a rolling design where experts assess the quality of national elections one month after the close of the polls. The questionnaire contains 49 core items. Based on the views of 2,417 experts, the average response rate for PEI 4.5 is 29%. The technical appendix provides full details about the reliability and validity of the dataset.

What is new?  

PEI-4.5 expands and updates coverage by covering elections held worldwide in 32 countries during the first half of 2016.   

The report provides an overview of the results and highlights several selected cases during early-2016 (Syria, Iran, the Philippines and Benin), and two cases to watch, in Russia and the US.


For more details, download the report.

The electronic dataset is also available for download via PEI's Dataverse.

The Perceptions of Electoral Integrity Index (PEI-4.5)

The global map of perceptions of electoral integrity (PEI-4.5)

The global map of perceptions of electoral integrity (PEI-4.5)

Download previous EIP reports